Hypertension can lead to heart attack, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease. Treating high blood pressure in the earlier stages is essential in preventing these severe health issues.
Dozens of medications can help treat high blood pressure. As per the experts, hypertension drugs can help to lower blood pressure by up to 10 points. These drugs are known as antihypertensives, and they are split into many different categories. Each category functions differently and causes various side effects.
Finding the best medication plan may take some time and patience as so many choices are available in the market. Your physician will work with you to uncover the best treatment plan to cater to your needs, and it may include one or a combination of medicine.
Following are the available options of drugs:
Diuretics are the most commonly used medicines for treating hypertension. They get rid of excess water, sodium, or salt in the kidneys and reduce the blood volume that has to pass through your blood vessels, lowering your blood pressure.
There are three main types of diuretics: thiazide, potassium-sparing, and loop diuretics.
Examples of thiazide diuretics are:
Examples of potassium-sparing diuretics are:
Examples of loop diuretics are:
Beta-blockers stop the actions of chemicals in your body that stimulate your heart, allowing it to beat with less speed and force. This way, your heart pumps less blood with each beat, so blood pressure decreases.
Examples of beta-blockers include:
- Acebutolol (Sectral)
- Metoprolol tartrate
- Metoprolol succinate
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
ACE inhibitors control your body from making an angiotensin II hormone, which forces blood vessels to narrow. These drugs lower blood pressure by allowing narrowed blood vessels to expand to let more blood through.
Examples of ACE inhibitors are:
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
This class of drugs also protects the blood vessels from angiotensin II. Angiotensin II must bind with a receptor site to tighten blood vessels, and ARBs prevent that from happening. As a result, blood pressure is reduced.
Examples of ARBs are:
These are the drugs used for lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. It is always better to involve a professional in your health journey. If you have heart disease book an appointment with the best Cardiologist in Islamabad through Marham for more information.
Calcium Channel Blockers
All muscles need calcium to flow in and out of the muscle cells to move. Calcium channel blockers stop calcium from penetrating the heart’s smooth muscle cells and blood vessels.
It makes the heartbeat less force and causes blood vessels to relax, decreasing blood pressure.
Examples of the drugs are:
Sometimes, your body produces catecholamines, binding to cells called alpha-receptors. When this happens, your blood vessels narrow, making your heart beat faster and forcefully, and it causes hypertension.
These drugs work by blocking catecholamines from attaching to alpha-receptors. As a result, blood can flow through the blood vessels freely, helping to lower your blood pressure.
Examples of alpha-blockers are:
Alpha-beta-blockers have a combined effect. Therefore, they can reduce the compression of blood vessels as alpha-blockers do, and they also slow down the speed and force of the heartbeat-like beta-blockers.
Examples of alpha-beta-blockers are:
These medications restrain the brain from sending messages to the nervous system. This way, the heart does not pump forcefully, and blood flows more efficiently, reducing blood pressure.
Examples of central agonists are:
It relaxes the muscles in the walls of blood vessels and widens the blood vessels, allowing blood to flow through them more easily. As a result, blood pressure decreases.
Examples of vasodilators are:
Aldosterone Receptor Antagonists
These work by blocking a chemical called aldosterone. It reduces the number of fluids retained by your body, helping to lower your blood pressure.
Examples of aldosterone receptor antagonists are:
Direct Renin Inhibitors
It is a newer type of blood pressure medication, and these drugs stop a chemical called renin; this action helps widen your blood vessels, lowering your blood pressure. The only type of DRI currently available in the market is aliskiren.